GreenYes Digest V97 #210

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Fri, 22 Jan 1999 17:09:12 -0500

GreenYes Digest Sat, 30 Aug 97 Volume 97 : Issue 210

Today's Topics:
cadmium, lead
Cadmium and lead in packaging
Composting Information (2 msgs)
Heavy Metals in Plastics
International SW Program Sites
Waste disposal levies and funding for waste minimisation programmes under
the NSW

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Date: Fri, 29 Aug 1997 07:52:07 -0600
From: "John Reindl 608-267-8815" <>
Subject: cadmium, lead

Regarding the use of cadmium and lead as both coloring agents and

While these materials were commonly used in the past (as noted by EPA
studies in the 1980's), the situation has changed substantially since
then, and more recent data needs to be obtained. The data from the
1980's is simply too out-of-date to even make any inferences.

Unfortunately, I don't have any suggestions for new sources of data.
The trade associations might be a place to start, as might be EPA.

Good luck!

John Reindl, Recycling Manager
Dane County, WI
(608)267-1533 - fax
(608)267-8815 - phone


Date: Sat, 30 Aug 1997 07:29:39 +1000
From: Ian Reeve <>
Subject: Cadmium and lead in packaging

I'm a little concerned by the tone of the replies to Susan Snow's
information about cadmium and lead in packaging.

As John Reindl states, the situation has changed, with heavy metals in
packaging now being banned in a number of countries as Michele Raymond
tells us.

But I don't accept what seems to me to be implicit in John and Michele's
replies - that Susan got it wrong with out of date references and we can
all now rest peacefully in our beds at night knowing that the legislators
are looking after us and our health.

Because there is an important aspect of the issue that has *not* changed.
As John said, "Good luck in looking for more current data". What has not
changed much at all since the days of Rachel Carson and "Silent Spring" is
the presumed right of the private sector to introduce synthetic substances
(with no equivalents in nature) into their production processes and
ultimately into the environment and people's bodies. Any attempts by those
who believe that they ought to have some say in what chemicals they will
have to carry in their bodies as the inevitable consequences of private
sector economic activity are brushed aside with claims of commercial
confidentiality. The amount of surveillance applied to the private sector
by the state is generally a political compromise between what is sufficient
to assuage the fears of the electorate without provoking the private sector
to act on its threats to take its production (and jobs) offshore to a third
world country with non-existent environmental standards. This political
compromise is unlikely to prevent a repeat of new episodes with as yet
unidentified contaminants, for the same reasons that the DDT, PCB, dioxin,
and heavy metal episodes have occurred.

So I would suggest that:

Yes, the situation with regard to heavy metals in packaging has changed for
the better.


No, the process by which we came to have problems with heavy metals in
packaging has *not* changed.

Imho there is no cause for complacency - Susan's information about the
1980s is a very important reminder that vigilance is still, and always will
be, required.

Ian Reeve

Ian Reeve
Senior Project Director
The Rural Development Centre
The University of New England Ph: +61 67 732220
ARMIDALE, NSW 2351 Fx: +61 67 733245


Date: Fri, 29 Aug 1997 13:55:46 -0500
From: Jim McNelly <>
Subject: Composting Information wrote:

I am creating an

> environmental web site with two other teens. I am personally
> beginning
> my research with composting. I will then move on to other forms and
> areas of recycling. If you have any information on composting, or
> know
> of any good sources, please let me know. If you want to simply send
> me
> the URL of a site to look at, that's great. If you want to write a
> piece
> about some aspect of composting, that's also great.

Hi there,

I have numerous links and information sources for you and anyone for
that matter on the Humusphere site listed below. If you find references
that are not listed on the Humusphere, send the link to us and we will
try to add it.

Good luck!

Jim~ McNelly   320-253-6255
HTTP:// - The Humusphere - Home of
NaturTech Composting Systems and The Composting Council
Links to Composting and Sustainable Community Sites


Date: Fri, 29 Aug 1997 15:28:40 -0400 From: Cindy/Mike Shea <> Subject: Composting Information


Biocycle magazine, published by JG Press in Emmaus, PA, is a great source of info on composting programs in the US and around the world. I don't think they have a WEB site, but the phone # is 610-967-4135

Cindy Shea


Date: Fri, 29 Aug 1997 08:59:00 -0400 (EDT) From: (Michele Raymond) Subject: Heavy Metals in Plastics

Susan Snow:

With all due respect, the information your quoting is about 10 years out of date. First of all, heavy metals in packaging has been BANNED in the U.S. for about five years. It is also banned in pacakging in Europe, and they will be going farther there.

There are heavy metals pigments and other stuff used in durable goods, but I understand they are working on getting much of it out because of environmental pressures.

May I suggest you check with more current references?

Sincerely Michele Raymond Recycling Laws International


Date: Fri, 29 Aug 1997 11:06:32 -0600 From: "John Reindl 608-267-8815" <> Subject: International SW Program Sites

Thank you to all that responded to my inquiry on getting information on solid waste laws and requirements in countries around the world. The following is a summary of what information was sent to me. I hope that it is helpful to others:


Sources of Information on Solid Waste Management Laws in other Countries

Waste Prevention Association Has links to sites in many countries. Perhaps

Recycling Laws International of Raymond Communications or Site has sample articles; need to buy a subscription to have complete information

Warmer Bulletin published by the World Resource Foundation Has lots of links to other sites, some information from its magazine.

European Commission DGXI Good material on the overall solid waste policy.

The European Environment Agency General, not much on waste

Recycling World magazine of the UK An excellent site, not only for links to other sites, but also for information from their magazine

The UK Environment Agency (responsible for waste regulation)

and the UK Department of the Environment

Envirobiz Very general information. Links to other countries often did not include links to the environmental agencies, although names and addresses provided.

Virtual Library of the Centre for Economic and Social Studies on the Environment. Lots of links to sites on Sustainable Development. Not much specific on solid waste issues.

In Sweden, information is available from the Swedish Forest Industries Assoc.

The Bureau of National Affairs in Washington, D.C., has such info. Marlon Allen, editor of the International Environment Reporter


Thanks again to everyone for their help!

John Reindl, Recycling Manager Dane County, WI (608)267-1533 - fax (608)267-8815 - phone


Date: Fri, 29 Aug 1997 14:12:36 -0600 From: (Betsy Gaines) Subject: petition



To the United States Congress: America's National Forests came into being 100 years ago as a perpetual national asset and legacy. These precious natural treasures clean our air and water; provide habitat for hundreds of thousands of species of plants and animals; protect our soil and prevent landslides; offer endless opportunities for recreation and spiritual reneal; and enhance our economy with tourist and other nonextractive industries.

Yet, the National Forests have been managed primarily for industrial logging. This short-term priority has been responsible for destroying millennia-old ecosystems; continues to silt up thousands of miles of streams; costs taxpayers billions of dollars; and endangers the lives and damages the property of countless numbers of people.

Our nation cannot afford the continuing degreadation of our National Forests, nor do we citizens wish that our taxes support such exploitation. Please support legislation to End Commercial Logging on National Forests.

Betsy Gaines PO Box 1263 Bozeman, MT 59771


Date: Fri, 29 Aug 1997 11:00:25 -0700 From: Chris Garton <> Subject: subscribe



Date: Sat, 30 Aug 1997 14:11:00 +0900 From: (Hop) Subject: Waste disposal levies and funding for waste minimisation programmes under the NSW

John Reindl said:

>Thanks for the summary of the NSW Waste Minimisation and Management >Act -- it was excellent. > >On a somewhat different topic, could you provide a little more >information on the landfill fees under section 72? We are trying to >get a similar program here in Wisconsin.

Hi John (I've also posted this to GreenYes for the benefit of others),

Well spotted! I must admit I've just been too lazy to dig this out and send it to you guys before this.

For your info the level of section 72 contribution set by the Government in the subsequent regulation was A$10/tonne and was intended to rise to A$15/tonne this year. The rise to $15 was blocked in Parliament however, pending the outcome of an inquiry to question why the Government was not fulfilling its election commitment to fully hypothecate the income from section 72 to expenditure for waste minimisation.

With hindsight this commitment should have been specifically stated in the Legislation - most appropriately in section 73(1). I've included both section 72 and 73 below for your information. I hope it proves useful.

Extract from the NSW Waste Minimisation and Management Act 1995 follows:

Part 8 Financial provisions

72 Contributions by occupiers of controlled waste facilities

(1) Nothing in this section applies to a controlled waste facility that is used solely for the purposes of re-using, recycling or reprocessing waste as determined by the EPA.

(2) The occupier of a controlled waste facility is required to pay to the EPA in respect of all waste received at the waste facility such contribution as may be prescribed by the regulations.

(3) The contribution payable by an occupier must be paid at such intervals, and in such manner, as the EPA may direct by notice in writing given to the occupier.

(4) An occupier who fails to pay any such contribution within the due time specified by the EPA is guilty of an offence against the Environmental Offences and Penalties Act 1989.

(5) The regulations may:

(a) provide for contributions to be calculated on such basis, and in accordance with such factors, as may be specified in the regulations, and

(b) provide for the exemption of specified occupiers, or specified classes of occupiers, from the requirement to pay contributions, and

(c) provide for the exemption of specified wastes from the calculation of contributions (including, for example, wastes that are recycled, reprocessed or re-used), and

(d) provide for the payment of rebates to specified occupiers or specified classes of occupiers.

(6) Any contribution payable by the occupier of a controlled waste facility under this section becomes, if it is not paid in accordance with this section and the regulations, a debt due to the EPA that is recoverable in any court of competent jurisdiction.

(7) Interest is payable on any unpaid contribution under this section at such rate and calculated in such manner as may be prescribed by the regulations. Any such interest may be recovered in the same way as the contribution is recovered.

73 Waste Planning and Management Fund

(1) There is to be established a Waste Planning and Management Fund into which is to be paid:

(a) such money as may be appropriated by Parliament for payment into the Fund, and

(b) such money as may be given to the EPA for the express purpose of payment into the Fund, and

(c) the proceeds of the investment of money in the Fund, and

(d) such money as may by law be required to be paid into the Fund.

(2) Money in the Fund may:

(a) be allocated with the Minister's authorisation only, and

(b) be spent in connection with waste reduction and management at State, regional and local government levels, and in connection with enforcement and regulation at regional and local government levels, and

(c) be allocated to Waste Boards on such basis as the Minister considers appropriate, and

(d) be carried forward in the Fund if it is not spent during the year in which it was paid into the Fund.

(3) The Minister is to seek the advice of SWAC regarding the development of policy for the allocation of money from the Fund, the setting and variation of any contributions under clause 72 and the procedures by which the contributions are imposed on the occupiers of controlled waste facilities.

(4) SWAC is to devise a formula for the apportioning of money allocated from the Fund for the purposes of waste related initiatives at State and regional levels. Such a formula is to specify the minimum proportion that is to be allocated for funding associated with regional waste initiatives.


End of GreenYes Digest V97 #210 ******************************