GreenYes Digest V98 #115

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Fri, 22 Jan 1999 17:30:31 -0500

GreenYes Digest Fri, 8 May 98 Volume 98 : Issue 115

Today's Topics:
include original message or summary thereof
OECD Recommendation Concerning the Re-use and Recycling of Beverage Containers
P.V.C. / E.C. / U.S. / Greenpeace
zero waste report (2 msgs)

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Loop-Detect: GreenYes:98/115

Date: Thu, 7 May 1998 07:50:18 -0600
From: "John Reindl" <>
Subject: include original message or summary thereof

David Turner wrote, in part -

> I suggest that when responding to a message that one
> investigate how to send the response without including the
> original posting

I, for one, find it very hard to read a response without at least a
summary of the original message. So I would ask that people not
exclude the original message in their replies.

BTW, I find Pegasus a wonderful email system. And it's free for the
download, you only pay for the manual if you want one. But it's so
easy, that no manual is needed.

John Reindl, Recycling Manager
Dane County, WI
(608)267-1533 - fax
(608)267-8815 - phone


Date: Fri, 8 May 1998 16:28:22 +0900
From: (Hop)
Subject: OECD Recommendation Concerning the Re-use and Recycling of Beverage

[From "Beverage Containers, Re-use or Recycling", Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development, Paris, 1978.]


(Adopted by the OECD Council on 3rd February, 1978)

The Council,

Having regard to Article 5(b) of the Convention on the Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development of 14th December, 1960;

Having regard to the Recommendation of the Council of 28th September, 1976
on a Comprehensive Waste Management Policy, calling in particular for the
development and implementation of measures to reduce waste generation and
encourage recycling;

Considering that beverage containers do not account for an insignificant
proportion of household waste and are a major source of litter; and that
clean-up and disposal costs are a matter of concern to local authorities
and governments in many Member countries;

Considering that in many countries the generally observed trend in the
beverage container market is towards the replacement of refillable bottles
by disposable containers, thus tending to make problems of waste disposal
more acute;

Considering that systems of beverage distribution by refillable containers,
over and above a certain trippage which is generally achieved in practice,
are at present proving superior to most other systems not only as concerns
municipal solid waste generation but also from such standpoints as energy
consumption, litter, air and water pollution;

Considering that certain measures such as the standardization of containers
and the recycling of their constituent materials can also greatly help to
reduce waste disposal problems, either by encouraging the introduction and
satisfactory operation of a system of refillable containers, or by
refillable containers, or by creating conditions likely to divert certain
forms of waste from the disposal circuit with a view to their profitable

Considering that national policies towards the internalisation of external
costs are to be implemented on the basis of action principles common to all
Member countries, in order to avoid the creation of trade barriers;

Having regard to the Report of the Environment Committee on the re-use and
recycling of beverage containers, where practical measures which can be
envisaged for implementing the present Recommendation are discussed in

On the proposal of the Environment Committee;

I. RECOMMENDS that Member countries, through international
co-operation as appropriate, where practicable define and implement
policies designed to ensure that the costs of the adverse environmental
impacts of the manufacture and use of beverage containers are effectively
and equitably borne by the producers and users of such containers.

II. RECOMMENDS that Member countries adopt appropriate measures with a
view to maintaining, or where necessary introducing, a system of
distribution by refillable containers covering as much as possible of the
beverage trade when it is expected that, in doing so, the social costs of
the beverage distribution systems are minimized.

III. RECOMMENDS that, when measures to promote the use of refillable
beverage containers are considered, they be accompanied by an effort to
standardize such containers, possibly undertaken on the basis of
collaboration between the countries concerned in order to prevent trade

IV. RECOMMENDS that, regardless of the measures taken to promote the
re-use of beverage containers, Member countries encourage the recycling of
the ultimately disposed-of containers, and take any other necessary step to
reduce as much as possible any adverse effect they may have on the


Date: Thu, 07 May 1998 12:00:22 -0500
From: Aaron Allen <>
Subject: P.V.C. / E.C. / U.S. / Greenpeace



WASHINGTON, DC, May 6, 1998 -- Greenpeace today condemned moves by
the US Department of Commerce to block European efforts to ban soft
vinyl (PVC) toys, even as a European Union (EU) Scientific Committee
reconfirmed the hazards posed by these toys.

Greenpeace recently obtained a letter sent from the US Ambassador in
Brussels, A. Vernon Weaver, to Hans Beseler, the Director General of the
European Commission responsible for External Affairs, and internal
"action cables" sent from US Commerce Department to US embassies in
Europe lobbying against proposed restrictions on soft PVC toys.

The memos, dated from December 1997 to March 1998, urged US government
representatives in Europe to immediately "establish a mechanism to
begin withdrawing EU bans and warnings on these and other soft PVC
products," arguing that "a ban in Europe undermines the goals of free
trade" and could result in "enormous loss of trade in these and
similar products." The memos also suggested that "no decisions be
taken on PVC restrictions in toys until further scientific data is
available," since "the discussion of a ban is based on hype rather
than scientific evidence."

Meanwhile, in an opinion published this week, the EU Scientific
Committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment concluded that
teething rings made from PVC, or polyvinyl chloride, leach up to ten
times the acceptable level of softeners known as phthalates.

The softeners DINP and DEHP, identified by the EU Scientific Committee
as exceeding the margin of safety, were found by Greenpeace to be those
most frequently used in soft PVC toys, and used at the highest
concentrations ranging from 10 to 40% of the product weight. These
phthalates have been shown to have critical effects on the liver or
on the reproductive system.

A legal ban on soft baby toys has already been agreed to in Austria, and
recommendations for voluntary withdrawals have been made by the Danish,
Dutch, German and Belgian Health Authorities. In March 1998, the Spanish
government requested the EU Commission consider European-wide
restrictions on soft PVC toys.

"While European national governments, consumers and parents, backed by a
wealth of scientific evidence, are calling for an urgent ban to protect
the health of their children, the US seeks only to protect the interests
of US-based toy companies such as Mattel and Hasbro," said Rick Hind

The entire life cycle of PVC plastic is a polluting process. Its
production involves highly toxic precursors and generates hazardous
emissions and wastes. When burned in accidental fires or waste
incinerators, PVC is a significant source of dioxin, a known carcinogen,
and of secondary hazardous wastes.

Copies of the US letters and the cables/memos are available on request.
The EU Scientific Committee report can be found at:

Greenpeace USA: Rick Hind, Toxics Campaign, 202-319-2505, or
Deborah Rephan, Press Office, 202-319-2492
Greenpeace International (Amsterdam): Axel Singhofen, 011-32-2-280-1987


Date: Thu, 7 May 1998 06:55:44 -0700 (PDT)
From: Megan Defendis <>
Subject: zero waste report

This was waiting for me upon my return from the CRRA conference. Is
the CRRA affiliated with this group in any way?

Megan Defendis
(330) 865-6166

Company Press Release

SOURCE: Zero Waste America

Zero Waste America Issues 1998 State of the Nation's
Waste Report

PHILADELPHIA, May 5 /PRNewswire/ -- Every year Americans are producing
more waste per
capita, as recycling efforts struggle to offset the impact of
population growth at more than 2 million
persons annually, reports Zero Waste America (ZWA), an Internet-based
organization, in its 1998 State of the Nation's Waste report.

In 1997, Americans generated 340 million tons of municipal waste,
which averaged 1.272 tons per
person. The recycling rate was 30%, for a total amount of 238 million
tons, or 0.890 tons of waste
disposed per person. By comparison, in 1990, Americans generated 269
million tons at an average
of 1.089 tons per person, recycled 8%, for a total disposal of 247
million tons, or 1.002 tons per

This is not good news. Municipal waste is only a fraction, perhaps
less than 20%, of the total waste

``The U.S. is sinking under an endless avalanche of waste, with no
credible plan of action in sight,''
said Lynn Landes, founder of ZWA. ``The Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) has a legal
obligation under the Solid Waste Management Act to require that states
reduce waste and maximize
recycling. Federal law also requires that states provide Waste
Management Plans. Instead, states
have a patchwork of programs with loopholes large enough to drive a
trash truck through,'' adds

ZWA created an innovative formula to judge a state's waste management
performance. Based on the
principal that states can and should manage their own waste, ZWA's
performance formula penalizes
states who import or export waste. ZWA identifies four strategies
states can employ to eliminate
waste disposal, imports, and exports: 1) implement waste disposal
bans, 2) support markets for
recyclables, 3) restrict land use, and 4) raise state taxes on the
amount of waste disposed.

South Dakota won first place as the nation's ``Best'' at managing
their municipal waste for 1997,
while Nevada won the ``Worst'' place position. New York was the
leading exporter of waste at 4.0
million tons, Pennsylvania imported the most waste, at 6.3 million
tons, and California was the leading
generator of waste, at 45.0 million tons. Washington recycled the most
waste, at 48% of their
municipal waste stream.

ZWA used data provided by a leading industry publication, Biocycle,
the Congressional Research
Service, Franklin Associates, and the U.S. Census Bureau.

Get your free address at


Date: Thu, 7 May 1998 16:09:44 EDT
From: CRRA <>
Subject: zero waste report

In a message dated 98-05-07 12:11:28 EDT, you write:

<< Subj: zero waste report
Date: 98-05-07 12:11:28 EDT
From: (Megan Defendis)

This was waiting for me upon my return from the CRRA conference. Is
the CRRA affiliated with this group in any way?

Megan Defendis
(330) 865-6166

Company Press Release

SOURCE: Zero Waste America


I can't speak officially for CRRA, but there has been no direct relationship
in the past. Zero Waste America is Lynn Landess, who participated in the
early organizing of the Grassroots Recycling Network for the Sierra Club in
Pennsylvania, but is no longer active with GRRN.

Gary Liss


End of GreenYes Digest V98 #115